Stakeholder analysis and social network analysis in natural resource management

Christina Prell, Klaus Hubacekb, Mark Reed, Department of Sociological Studies, University of Sheffield and  Sustainability Research Institute, School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, 2009

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Many conservation initiatives fail because they pay inadequate attention to the interests and characteristics of stakeholders. (Grimble and Wellard, 1997). As a consequence, stakeholder analysis has gained increasing attention and is now integral to many participatory natural resource management initiatives (Mushove and Vogel, 2005). However, there are a number of important limitations to current methods for stakeholder analysis. For example, stakeholders are usually identified and categorized through a subjective assessment of their relative power, influence and legitimacy (Mitchell et al., 1997; Frooman, 1999). Although a wide variety of categorization schemes have emerged from the literature (such as primary and secondary (Clarkson, 1995), actors and those acted upon (Mitchell et al., 1997); strategic and moral (Goodpaster, 1991); and generic and specific (Carroll, 1989) methods have often overlooked the role communication networks can play in categorizing and understanding stakeholder relationships. Social network analysis (SNA) offers one solution to these limitations.

Environmental applications of SNA are just beginning to emerge, and so far have focused on understanding characteristics of social networks that increase the likelihood of collective action and successful natural resource management (Schneider et al., 2003; Tomkins and Adger, 2004; Newman and Dale, 2004; Bodin et al., 2006; Crona and Bodin, 2006). In this paper, we harness and expand upon this knowledge to inform stakeholder analysis for participatory natural resource management. By participatory natural resource management we mean a process that engages stakeholders on multiple levels of decision making and facilitates the formation and strengthening of relationships among stakeholders for mutual learning (Grimble and Wellard, 1997; Dougill et al., 2006; Stringer et al., 2006). To enhance stakeholder analysis, we use SNA to identify the role and influence of different stakeholders and categories of stakeholder according to their positions within the network. We do this using case study material from the Peak District National Park, UK.

M&E training to be provided by Mosaic

Dear Colleague,
Time to register for Mosaic’s capacity building workshops planned for this July 2008: 1) Stakeholder Participation in: Planning, Needs Assessment, Monitoring and Evaluation; 2) Results-based Management, Appreciative Inquiry and Open Space Technology; and 3) Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation.

Please jot these dates down on your calendar and forward this message to any interested colleagues. We look forward to your participation.

Stakeholder Participation in Planning, Needs Assessment, Monitoring and Evaluation using PRA/PLA Tools
Ottawa, Canada
July 7-12, 2008

The Stakeholder Participation workshop focuses on core participatory concepts, tools and their application. This is an intensive six-day workshop set in the community to maximize learning, group interaction and networking. Topics include The Origins of Participatory Development, Learning and Application of PRA/PLA tools, the Application of Participation to Project Design, Monitoring and Evaluation, Developing Effective Facilitation Skills, Building Action Plans and Team-Building. Two-day community assignments proposed by community-based organizations in the Ottawa region will allow participants to apply tools learned in the workshop to real-life situations. This is also a great opportunity to network with other practitioners, NGOs, donors, and action researchers from all over the world.

For further information, please refer to the web site at http// or by email at

Results-based Management, Appreciative Inquiry and Open Space Technology
Ottawa, Canada
July 14-18, 2008

This new workshop introduces participants to Results-based Management, Appreciative Inquiry and Open Space Technology. Demonstrate the effectiveness of your programmes with Results-based Management. Master what we mean by results, develop programme/organizational plans which are results-based and design performance monitoring systems based on indicators and participatory methods. You will also expand your repertoire of tools to also learn about Appreciative Inquiry and Open Space and how they can be applied to your organization, programme and/or project. These approaches are increasingly being used around the world to tap into new ways to do our work in ways that are more results-oriented, more appreciative and less problem-focused and more self-organized vs top down.

For further information, please refer to the web site at http// or by email at

Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation
Ottawa, Canada
July 21-26,2008

Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation (PM & E) involves a different approach to project monitoring and evaluation by involving local people, project stakeholders, and development agencies deciding together about how to measure results and what actions should follow once this information has been collected and analyzed. This intensive six day experiential workshop is practically focused with daily excursions into the community and a three-day community assignment. Topics covered at the workshop include Origins of PM & E, Skills and Attributes of a PM & E facilitator, Learning PM & E Tools, Designing a Monitoring and Evaluation Framework, Quantitiative and Qualitative Indicators and Building Actions Plan and much more.

All workshops organized by Mosaic are sensitive to issues of gender, ethnicity, race, and class and how these can influence outcomes and how we see the world if they are absent from our assumptions, direct participation, our analysis and conclusions.

Can’t attend the workshops? Contact us to custom design a workshop to suit the specific needs of your organization.

For further information, please refer to the web site at http// or by email Rayna at Send us your full mailing address and we will send you a brochure.

Francoise Coupal
Founder of International, Inc.